References and Further Reading 1. Metaphysics Traditionally, metaphysics pertains to the analysis of objects or events and the forces or factors causing or impinging upon them. One branch of metaphysics, denoted ontology, investigates problems and questions concerning the nature and existence of objects or events and their associated forces or factors. Another branch of metaphysics involves the examination of presuppositions that inform a given ontology.
The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena: A doctrine and an appeal based on it, a program for changing life, and A social structure that exists in time and space.
The most obvious examples include Marxism as contained in the "classic" writings of Marx and others and the social structure that exists in the U. Among the fundamental principles of the state doctrine in these countries is the assertion that the connection between the two phenomena is very simple.
On the one hand, it is asserted, there is a scientific theory which proves that after achieving a definite level in the development of productive forces, mankind will pass over to a new historic formation; this theory points the way to the most rational paths for such a transition. And on the other hand, we are assured, there is the embodiment of this scientific prognosis, its confirmation.
As an example of quite a different point of view we cite H. Wells, who visited Russia in and, though infected by the worship of socialism, fashionable then as now, nevertheless almost instinctively refused to accept Marxism, in this sense reflecting the antipathy toward all scholastic theories typical of an Englishman.
In his book Russia in the Shadows, Wells writes: The state system established as a result is therefore defined and shaped by the necessity of holding power. Since these tasks are entirely different, the official theory and the actual implementation have nothing in common.
It would be incautious to take either of these assertions on faith.
On the contrary, it would be desirable, first, to study both "socialisms" independently, without any a priori hypotheses, and only then attempt to come to conclusions about the connections that exist between them.
We shall begin with socialism understood as a doctrine, as an appeal. All such doctrines and as we shall see, there were many of them have a common core--they are based on the complete rejection of the existing social structure.
They call for its destruction and paint a picture of a more just and happy society in which the solution to all the fundamental problems of the times would be found. Furthermore, they propose concrete ways of achieving this goal.
In religious literature such a system of views is referred to as belief in the thousand-year Kingdom of God on earth--chiliasm. Borrowing this terminology, we shall designate the socialist doctrines of this type as "chiliastic socialism.
In doing so, we shall attempt to extract a picture of the future society envisaged, leaving to one side for the moment the motivation as well as the concrete means recommended for achieving the ideal. The first example takes us to Athens in B. Here he depicts a teaching fashionable in the Athens of the time.
The plot is as follows: They use this power to introduce a series of measures, which are expounded in a dialogue between Praxagora, the leader of the women, and her husband, Blepyros. Here are several quotations.
No more the division between Rich and Poor.
My initial move will be to communalize land, and money, and all other property, personal and real. A system like this requires a pretty wise father to know his own children. But why does he need to? Age is the new criterion: Children will henceforth trace their descent from all men who might have begot them.
This leaves you just one civic function: When the shades of night draw on, slip sleekly down to dinner. Let us attempt to specify the associations that arise by considering a second example--the classic statement of the Marxist program contained in the Communist Manifesto.
Here are some quotations characterizing the future society as the authors imagine it: Abolition of private property. Even the most radical Hare up at this infamous proposal of the Communists.
On what foundation is the present  family, the bourgeois family based? On capital, on private gain.Medical Dark Ages Quotes. By Wade Frazier.
Revised in July Introduction. Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Section 5. Section 6.
Section 7. Socrates remarks that Meletus, Anytus, and Lycon, who have brought the present charges before the court, are only the most recent of a number of people who have spoken out against him. He has more reason to fear his older accusers than these recent ones, because the former have been speaking out.
The philosopher Socrates remains, as he was in his lifetime (– B.C.E.),  an enigma, an inscrutable individual who, despite having written nothing, is considered one of the handful of philosophers who forever changed how philosophy itself was to be conceived.
All our information about him is second-hand and most of it vigorously disputed, but his trial and death at the hands of the. Link to Departments website.
The major in Accounting at UGA is designed to give students an understanding of the theory of accounting as it is used in our society: accounting standards, financial statement preparation, product costs, budgeting, taxation, auditing, risk assessment, and controls.
Philosophy of Special Education Marchelle Mitchell EDU February 4, Valerie Klaus Philosophy of Special Education The purpose of schooling is to help our special education students to be functional and independent in the real world.
Swami Sivananda explains the importance of celibacy for spiritual practice.